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by Laura Power, MS, PhD, LDN.

© January, 2008


Tap water is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency.  But America's tap water is

frequently contaminated with toxic heavy metals, particularly aluminum, antimony, arsenic and

sometimes lead.  It also contains chlorination by-products.  While most bacteria are killed, tap

water routinely harbors viruses, and can sometimes harbor parasites.  Even more scary, tap

water contains hormones, pesticides, and thousands of synthetic organic chemicals.   "E.P.A.

reports show that U.S. water supplies contain over 2300 cancer causing chemicals..."  (The Ralph

Nader Research Group).  WHY is our water so polluted?  Because water treatment facilities were

not designed to take out synthetic organic chemicals nor toxic heavy metals.


Bottled water companies that transport water across state lines must meet FDA standards; but

that's only 30-40% of companies.  The other 60-70% of companies are instate and don't meet

these standards.  FDA standards for bottled water are less stringent than EPA standards for tap

water when it comes to: bacteria, disinfection, parasites, carcinogens, and reporting

requirements.  The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) reports that 40% of all bottled

water comes from city water systems -- not spring water.


There are 3 main forms of water filtration:

(1) DISTILLATION: This takes out all contaminants, but it also takes out all minerals. Long-

term use of demineralized water is unnatural and ultimately dangerous. It leads to mineral

deficiencies, and can cause osteopenia (bone demineralization). Demineralized water is more

acidic (has more hydrogen), and draws minerals and bicarbonate from blood, tissues, bones and

teeth to neutralize the acid. Acidosis increases free radicals, increasing the risk of inflammation

and cancer.  This water needs to have major and trace minerals added back to it before drinking.

(2) REVERSE OSMOSIS: This is an elaborate and expensive filtration system that produces

water without contaminants, but also without minerals.  It has the same effect as distilled water.

Nowhere on earth do we find naturally occurring de-mineralized water.  This water needs to have

major and trace minerals added back to it before drinking.

(3) SELECTIVE FILTRATION: These are filters that have the ability to remove contaminants

but not healthful minerals.  They should remove: chlorine, lead, cysts, THMs, VOCs, Lindane,

Alachlor, Atrazine, Benzene, TCE, and MTBE.  They should leave in: Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc,

Iron, etc.  The healthiest peoples in the world drink slightly alkaline water with lots of minerals.

You can also buy filters for your shower, refrigerator, and whole house water filters.


Look for performance claims that have been certified by NSF, UL or the CA. Dept. Of Health.

Beware of undocumented performance claims and over-priced systems.  Attached is a link

comparing 10 top water-filtration systems. Of these, Aquasana and Culligan rated the highest.

Both are medium priced: $125 - $160.  Amway and Aquapure rated next highest, but were

over-priced.  Brita pitcher filter ranked the lowest, and filtered out the least contaminents.  Link

to table of comparisons.


Bottled water includes the following types:

· Artesian Water (from large underground aquifers)

· Fluoridated water (F added to water)

· Ground Water (underground source)

· Mineral Water (250 ppm dissolved solids, mostly calcium and magnesium, underground source)

· Purified Water (distilled, deionized, or reverse osmosis)

· Sparkling Water (contains carbon dioxide)

· Spring Water (flows to surface from underground)

· Sterile Water (meets sterile standards)

· Well Water (from a hole tapping).

Example: Poland Spring water is the top-selling spring water brand in America. It is derived

from 6 natural springs in Maine. Recently, the company has invented a new water bottle that is

30% less plastic for its size.

Example: Deer Park Natural Spring Water comes from springs in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The

company also makes "Distilled Water" and "Drinking Water", which are municipal water and/or

well water that are treated to remove excess minerals and impurities. Both are less expensive

than "Spring" water.


The Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, and World Wildlife Fund have all urged their

supporters to consume less bottled water, and various campaigns against bottled water are

starting to appear. Many of these campaigns claim that bottled water is no better than tap

water. Organizations such as Corporate Accountability International say that millions of plastic

bottles end up in landfills.

Supporters of bottled water view the product not just as an alternative for municipal water, but

as a healthy choice instead of soft drinks or sport drinks that can be purchased in restaurants,

convenience stores or vending machines. The bottled water industry points out that PET bottles

(polyethylene terephthalate) make up only one-third of 1 percent of the waste stream in the

United States.  The production of bottled water costs between $0.25 and $2 per bottle.

According to Bottledwaterblues.com about 90% of this cost is from making the bottle, label, and


For more on the controversy, see Wikipedia....


Bottled spring water is safer than tap water.  So if you are going to drink bottled water, buy the

5-gallon bottles for home delivery, which are recycled every month by the supplier.   You can

buy a spigot that fits in the bottle that operates on flash light batteries for about $25 at a water

store.  Or if you buy spring water in small bottles, recycle the bottles each week.  You should

also purchase a good water filter for cooking and for your refrigerator.